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Otolaryngology (pronounced oh-toe-lair-in-goll-oh-jee) is the oldest medical specialty in the United States. Otolaryngologists are physicians trained in the medical and surgical management and treatment of patients with diseases and disorders of the ear, nose, throat (ENT), and related structures of the head and neck. They are commonly referred to as ENT physicians.
What do otolaryngologists treat?
ENT physicians diagnose and manage diseases of the sinuses, larynx (voice box), oral cavity, and upper pharynx (mouth and throat), as well as structures of the neck and face, as well as many ENT primary care problems in both children and adults.
Hearing loss affects one in ten North Americans. The unique domain of ENT’s is the treatment of ear disorders. They are trained in both the medical and surgical treatment of hearing, ear infections, balance disorders, ear noise (tinnitus), nerve pain, and facial and cranial nerve disorders. ENT physicians also manage congenital (birth) disorders of the outer and inner ear.
About 35 million people develop chronic sinusitis each year, making it one of the most common health complaints in America. Care of the nasal cavity and sinuses is one of the primary skills of ENT physicians. Management of the nasal area includes allergies and sense of smell. Breathing through, and the appearance of, the nose are also part of an ENT’s expertise.
Communicating (speech and singing) and eating a meal all involve this vital area. Also specific to ENT’s is expertise in managing diseases of the larynx (voice box) and the upper aero-digestive tract or esophagus, including voice and swallowing disorders.
The Head and Neck
This center of the body includes the important nerves that control sight, smell, hearing, and the face. In the head and neck area, otolaryngologists are trained to treat infectious diseases, both benign and malignant (cancerous) tumors, facial trauma, and deformities of the face. They perform both cosmetic plastic and reconstructive surgery.
Why should I see an ENT physician?
These specialists differ from many providers in that they are trained in both medicine and surgery. ENT’s do not need to refer patients to other physicians when ear, nose, throat, or head/neck surgery is needed and, therefore, can offer the most appropriate care for each individual patient. Therefore, otolaryngologists are the most appropriate physicians to treat disorders of the ears, nose, throat, and related structures of the head and neck.
How are ear, nose, and throat specialists trained?
ENT physicians are ready to start practicing after completing up to 15 years of college and post-graduate training. To qualify for certification by the American Board of Otolaryngology, an applicant must first complete college, medical school (usually four years), and at least five years of specialty training. Next, the physician must pass the American Board of Otolaryngology examination. In addition, some otolaryngologists pursue a one- or two- year fellowship for more extensive training in one of eight subspecialty areas.
These subspecialty areas are pediatric otolaryngology (children), otology/neurotology (ears, balance, and tinnitus), allergy, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, head and neck, laryngology (throat), rhinology (nose), and sleep. Some otolaryngologists limit their practices to one of these eight areas.
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